Transliteration — ଟ୍ରାନ୍ସଲିଟରେଶନ — ŧrānsliṭarēśan

After covering বাংলা (bāŋlā) and മലയാളം (malayāḷaṃ), next up in the series is ଓଡ଼ିଆ (ōṛiā)!

This work would not have been possible with another patient friend, a native speaker. My sincere thanks to you.

Since it is not my native tongue, there might be exceptions that have been missed. Anyone who feels so, can contact me with a brief written explanation, and I will be most happy to add them. You can refer to the বাংলা (bāŋlā) post for help in framing the explanation.

Without further ado, here goes!

  • Vowels
    • ଅ : a
    • ଆ : ā
    • ଇ : i
    • ଈ : ī
    • ଉ : u
    • ଊ : ū
    • ଋ : r̥
    • ୠ : l̥
    • ଏ : ē
    • ଐ : ai
    • ଓ : ō
    • ଔ : ou
  • Consonants
    • କ : k
    • ଖ : kʰ
    • ଗ : g
    • ଘ : gʰ
    • ଙ : ŋ
    • ଚ : c
    • ଛ : cʰ
    • ଜ : j
    • ଝ : jʰ
    • ଞ : ñ
    • ଟ : ŧ
    • ଠ : ŧʰ
    • ଡ : đ
    • ଢ : đʰ
    • ଣ : ṇ
    • ତ : t
    • ଥ : tʰ
    • ଦ : d
    • ଧ : dʰ
    • ନ : n
    • ପ : p
    • ଫ : pʰ
    • ବ : b
    • ଭ : bʰ
    • ମ : m
    • ଯ : y
    • ର : r
    • ଳ : ḷ
    • ୱ : v
    • ଶ : ś
    • ଷ : ṣ
    • ସ : s
    • ହ : h
    •  ଂ : ṃ
    •  ଃ : ḥ
    •  ଁ : ŋ
    • ্ : eliminate the implied /a sound at the end of whichever consonant it appears after.
  • Special consonants
    • ଡ଼ : ṛ
    • ଢ଼ : ṛʰ
    • ୟ :  ẏ
    • ଲ : l
    • କ୍ଷ : kṣ

Some points to be noted, are as follows.

  1. /y is pronounced as /j, just like in বাংলা (bāŋlā) [see Point #5 below the mapping].
    / explicitly maps to the /y in other saṃskr̥t-influenced languages, again similar to bāŋlā.
    Just like in bāŋlā, when appearing in combination with other consonants, both appear and sound similarly, like the /.
  2. In ड़/ଡ଼ and ढ़/ଢ଼, the effect of the /r with the role of the tongue is much more highlighted than in saṃskr̥t. This is another similarity to bāŋlā [Point #6], where I had taken the effect into account by writing them respectively as and ṛʰ instead of the saṃskr̥t way of writing them as and ḍʰ respectively.
  3. Thus, using for /  like in other saṃskr̥t-influenced languages may confuse the transliterator/reader (henceforth simply “user”), hence this letter is represented (like in bāŋlā) as ŧ.
  4. କ୍ଷ/kṣ
    1. It is not pronounced like क्ष/kṣ is pronounced in saṃskr̥t or हिंदी. It is closer to the ক্ষ/kṣ sound in bāŋlā, but is heavier than that. I found no better way to represent this and not confuse users so I leave it at that.
    2. In some cases, it is pronounced as / (just like in bāŋlā, see Point#9). In such cases, it will be written as , for example, କ୍ଷୌର will be written as kʰoura instead of kṣoura.
  5. In some cases, is pronounced as , and must be transliterated accordingly. For example, ଗଣ୍ଯ is pronounced as ଗନ୍ଯ, hence will be written as ganẏa, not gaṇẏa.
  6. There are times when may not be explicitly be added, but implied. In such cases, the transliterator has to be careful in eliminating the otherwise implied /a sound. For examples: [a] ଗଞ୍ଜାମ is pronounced as ଗଞ୍ଜାମ୍, hence written as gañjām instead of gañjāma; [b] ଦାମ is pronounced as ଦାମ୍, hence to be written as dām and not dāma.
  7. This rule makes this language unique, because in this respect, it is neither like हिंदी/मराठी, nor like saṃskr̥t, nor like bāŋlā. In combination sounds, both /b and /v are written similarly, for example ମ୍ + ବ = ମ୍ବ (mb) as well as ମ୍ + ୱ = ମ୍ବ (mv). Hence, the transliterator needs to be careful on which one is being pronounced, and transliterate accordingly. Although in most cases /v is pronounced, for example, ଶ୍ + ୱ = ଶ୍ବ as in ଶ୍ବାସ/śvāsa, there are certain cases where /b is pronounced, for example ମ୍ + ବ = ମ୍ବ as in ଆମ୍ବ/āmba.

Examples of standard words that I use quite often are given below.

  • ōṛiṣā
  • ōṛiā
  • bʰubanēśvara
  • purī
  • bālēśvara
  • kaŧaka
  • gañjām

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